Barbados Sea Turtle Project
Department of Biological & Chemical Sciences University of the West Indies
Cave Hill Campus (POB 64)
Tel: (246) 417-4320
Bräutigam, A. and K. L. Eckert. 2006. Turning the Tide: Exploitation, Trade and Management of Marine Turtles in the Lesser Antilles, Central America, Colombia and Venezuela. TRAFFIC International, Cambridge, UK.
(1) take or capture, or attempt to take or capture, any turtle or turtle egg on the beach or within one hundred yards of the shore;
(2) set, or attempt to set, any net or seine or other instrument for the purpose of taking, capturing or fishing for turtles within 100 yards of the shore; and
(3) buy, sell or expose for sale any turtle weighing less than 30 lb (13.6 kg).
The penalties for contravention of these provisions in 1992 were fines of 100 Barbados dollars (BBD100) and seizure of any turtles caught and any gear used, including boats (Horrocks, 1992).
These provisions remained in effect until implementation of the Fisheries Act (1993), which provided for the management and development of fisheries and protection of marine turtles, through the Fisheries (Management) Regulations of 1998. These established an indefinite ban on the exploitation of marine turtles and also prohibited the possession, purchase and sale of marine turtles and products. Export is only permitted for research/scientific purposes. Penalties for violations of these prohibitions are a fine of BBD50 000 and/or two years’ imprisonment (MPDE, 2002).
According to the Ministry of Physical Development and Environment (MPDE) (MPDE, 2002), other legislation that provides for the conservation of marine turtles includes the:
• Marine Boundaries and Jurisdiction Act of 1979, which identifies marine conservation officers to be police, fisheries officials and Coast Guard and Defence Force personnel;
• Defence Act of 1979, which assigns responsibility to the Barbados Coast Guard for the enforcement of laws relating to fisheries, territorial waters, beach mining, and other activities; and
• Coastal Zone and Management Act (1998–39), which provides a statutory basis for coastal management and planning in Barbados and includes specific provisions for protection of resources, such as from destruction of corals and degradation of the foreshore, and for the designation of marine protected areas and marine parks.
The import and export of wildlife products is controlled by the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora Act, 2006. This Act gives the CITES Convention the force of law in Barbados.
Bass et al. (2006) Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas) Foraging and Nesting Aggregations in the Caribbean and Atlantic: Impact of Currents and Behavior on Dispersal. Journal of Heredity 2006:97(4):346–354, doi:10.1093/jhered/esl004
Beggs, J., B. Krueger and J. Horrocks. 2001. Barbados Sea Turtle Project: Nesting Beach Monitoring Programme Procedures Manual. Barbados Sea Turtle Project, University of the West Indies. 35 pp. + app.
Bowen et al (1996) Origin of Hawksbill Turtles in a Caribbean Feeding Area as Indicated by Genetic Markers, Ecological Applications, Vol. 6, No. 2, (May, 1996), pp. 566-572, Ecological Society of America.
Bowen et al (2007) Mixed-stock analysis reveals the migrations of juvenile hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) in the Caribbean Sea, Molecular Ecology (2007) 16 , 49–60 doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2006.03096.
Bräutigam, A. and Eckert, K.L. (2006). Turning the Tide: Exploitation, Trade and Management of Marine Turtles in the Lesser Antilles, Central America, Colombia and Venezuela. TRAFFIC International, Cambridge, UK.
Bunkley-Williams, L., Williams, E. H. Jr., Horrocks, J. A., Horta, H. C., Mignucci-Giannoni, A. and A. C. Poponi. 2008. New Leeches and Diseases for the Hawksbill Sea turtle and the West Indies. Comparative Parasitology 75: 263-270.
Eckert, K.L. and J.A. Horrocks (Eds). 2002. Proceedings of “Sea Turtles and Beachfront Lighting: An Interactive Workshop for Industry Professionals and Policy-Makers in Barbados”, 13 October 2000. Sponsored by WIDECAST, Barbados Sea Turtle Project, and Tourism Development Corporation of Barbados. WIDECAST Technical Report 1. v + 43 pp.
Fish, M.R., Côté, I.M., Horrocks, J.A, Mulligan, B., Watkinson, A.R. and A.P. Jones. 2008. Construction setback regulations and sea-level rise: mitigating sea turtle nesting beach loss. Ocean and Coastal Management 51:330-341.
Harewood, A. and Horrocks, J.A. 2008. Impacts of coastal development on hawksbill hatchling survival and swimming success during the initial offshore migration. Biological Conservation 141: 394-401.
Horrocks, J. A. 1992. Sea Turtle Recovery Action Plan for Barbados. (K. L. Eckert, Editor). CEP Technical Report No. 12. UNEP Caribbean Environment Program. 61 pp.
Horrocks, J.A., L.A. Vermeer, B. Krueger, M. Coyne, B. Schroeder and G. Balazs. 2001. Migration routes and destination characteristics of post-nesting Hawksbill Turtles satellite-tracked from Barbados, West Indies. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 4(1):1–7.
Horrocks, J.A. and S. Willoughby. 1987. The National Report for Barbados. Presented to the Second Western Atlantic Turtle Symposium, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico, October 1987.
Horrocks et al (1991) Nest site location and nest success in the hawksbill turtle Eretmochelys imbricata in Barbados, West Indies. Marine Ecology Progress Series Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. Vol. 69: 1-8, 1991.
Hunte, W. 1984. Western Atlantic Turtle Symposium National Report for Barbados. Pp. 36–40. In: P. Bacon et al. (Eds). Proceedings of the Western Atlantic Turtle Symposium, 17–22 July 1983, San José, Costa Rica, III, Appendix 7. Univiversity of Miami Press, Florida.
In Press Browne, D.C., Horrocks, J.A., and F. A. Abreu-Grobois. Population subdivision in hawksbill turtles nesting on Barbados, West Indies, determined from mitochondrial DNA control region sequences. Conservation Genetics.
Krueger, B.K., J.A. Horrocks and J. Beggs. 2003a. Increase in nesting activity by Hawksbill Turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) in Barbados. Pp. 149. In: J.A. Seminoff (Compiler). Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Symposium on Sea Turtle Biology and Conservation. NOAA Technical Memorandum. NMFS-SEFSC-503. US Department of Commerce.
Krueger, B.K., J.A. Horrocks and J. Beggs. 2003b. International Movements of Adult Female and Juvenile Hawksbill Turtles, Eretmochelys imbricata, from Barbados, West Indies. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Symposium on Sea Turtle Biology and Conservation, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, March 2003.
Leighton, P.A., J.A. Horrocks, B.H. Krueger, J.A. Beggs and D.L. Kramer. 2008. Predicting species interactions from edge responses: mongoose predation on hawksbill sea turtle nests in fragmented beach habitat. Proc. Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 275: 2465-2472.
Luke, K., J. Horrocks, R. Leroux and P. Dutton. 2004. Origins of green turtle feeding aggregations around Barbados, West Indies. Marine Biology 144:799–805.
Mohammed et al (2003) Barbados: Reconstructed Fisheries Catches and Fishing Effort, 1940-2000